Setup

Setup Your First Test

Since v2.2.0 Sakuli provides an easy to use mechanism to initialize testcases and testsuites.

npx sakuli create project . my-sut

This will create all necessary files and folders to start writing your first Sakuli test right away. With this, you can skip the next section and directly start to write your first test

Setup the Project Manually

Since we wanted to keep Sakuli mostly compatible to v1, the file layout looks basically the same for testsuites.

Each testsuite is located in its own particular folder. Generally, a testsuite represents the system you want to test. Therefore, you need to create that folder in your project root (where the package.json file is located):

mkdir my-sut

To describe the testsuite and its testcases, two additional files are needed: testsuite.properties and testsuite.suite. These files are required for backwards compatibility (they might not be necessary in the future but will at least be supported). These files should be added to the my-sut folder:

cd my-sut
echo > testsuite.suite
echo > testsuite.properties

We can add the following contents to testsuite.properties:

echo testsuite.id=my-sut > testsuite.properties

This is the minimum configuration for using Sakuli. The .properties file adds some metadata needed by the Sakuli-Runtime and can be changed to configure other things like forwarders or the default browser for the execution.

The testsuite.suite file tells Sakuli which testcases are running. The format is:

<FOLDER-NAME>/<FILE-NAME>.js <START_URL>

The actual testcase file must be placed inside a folder (this is due to the format forced by Sahi in Sakuli v1). The start-url also needs to be added but has no effect in v2+.

With this in mind, we can add a testcase file:

mkdir my-testcase
echo > my-testcase/testcase.js

And add the following information to the testsuite.suite file:

echo my-testcase/testcase.js https://sakuli.io > testsuite.suite

After the setup you can add the actual test code to my-testcase/testcase.js:

(async () => {  // 1
    const testCase = new TestCase(); // 2
    try {
        // actual testcode goes here
    } catch (e) {
        await testCase.handleException(e); // 3
    } finally {
        await testCase.saveResult(); // 4
    }
})(); // 5

Let us examine this piece of code:

  1. The whole test is wrapped in an async immediate invoked function. It allows us to use the async/await syntax of ES6. Since Sakuli makes heavy use of async operations, it makes your code more readable.
  2. To provide Sakuli information about our actual testcase, we create a TestCase object, which handles the execution of a testcase.
  3. If any error occurs during testing, it will be redirected to the TestCase object. It triggers Sakuli’s internal error handling e.g. taking a screenshot of the actual failed test execution.
  4. Regardless of a failed or passed test execution, Sakuli saves all results. This is more like a legacy artifact and will be removed in the future.
  5. The () at the end of this line will invoke the defined function. Since v2.2.0 Sakuli is able to detect this invocation without explicitly chaining the call of done function like in previous versions (it is still possible to add .then(done))

Write your first test

Let us write a simple test using the Sakuli.io homepage as test subject. This test will verify if our “Getting Started” guide that you are reading at this very moment is still accessible.

(async () => {
    const testCase = new TestCase();
    try {
        await _navigateTo("https://sakuli.io");                  // 1
        testCase.endOfStep("Open Landing Page", 5, 10);          // 2
        await _click(_link("Getting started"));                  // 3
        await _click(_link("Initialization"));
        testCase.endOfStep("Navigate to Initialization Section", 3, 5);
        await _highlight(_code("npm init"));                     // 4
        testCase.endOfStep("Find npm init code sample");
    } catch (e) {
        await testCase.handleException(e);
    } finally {
        await testCase.saveResult();
    }
})();
  1. Since we are dealing with a web test, the first thing we want to do is to _navigateTo our target page. Instead of manually setting up the correct WebDriver instance, we just have to provide a target URL. Sakuli will take care of the rest for us. await indicates that we are patiently waiting for our page to load before we continue with our next testing step.
  2. Once our initial page load has been completed, it is of our great interest to know how long it took to render. When it comes to runtime, Sakuli does not only measure the execution time of testcases, but also allows to split a single testcase into several logical steps. This way it becomes possible to accurately measure the runtime of certain processes like e.g. login, shopping cart, checkout and so on. By calling testCase.endOfStep("Open Landing Page", 5, 10);, we are ending our first step, the initial page load. Additionally, it is also possible to specify warning and critical thresholds for each step. Whenever a step exceeds one of these values, the result will change from OK to WARNING or CRITICAL.
  3. With Sakuli it becomes very easy to interact with web elements. In our current example, we want to _click a _link which is identified by some given text. Once again, we do not have to take care of many details, as Sakuli will do most of the heavy lifting for us. We are just passing the link text to Sakuli, which will search for our desired element using multiple identifiers. This way we do not have to worry about using an ID, a CSS selector or something else to identify our element. As we have already seen in our first test action, await will wait until the test action has been completed.
  4. In some cases, it is really helpful to visually verify test execution. Sakuli comes with a built-in _highlight function, which will highlight an element with a bright red border. Although being useful, _highlight should be used carefully since it will increase the overall testing runtime.

Execute your first test

Since Sakuli 2 is built with Node, there are at least two different ways to execute a Sakuli test. We will take a look at each one of them. Organizing tests as NPM projects makes it easier for you to distribute testcode. Everything required to execute the test is described in a project config, so tests should be ready to use after running npm install inside a project. 👍

npx

Because of the way we have set up and configured our project in this guide, Sakuli is only available to this particular project. npx is a really handy tool, which allows us to execute our Sakuli CLI directly from the command line, even though we did not add it to the system PATH.

In order to run our first test, we just have to execute npx sakuli run my-sut inside our project folder (e.g. /tmp/sakuli_starter on *nix). By default, Sakuli will pick up the browser configured in the testsuite.properties file, but with npx it is possible to change the browser on the fly:

npx sakuli run my-sut --browser chrome
This command will execute our test in Chrome.

Regardless of the browser choice, as long as our site did not slow down, you should see a successful test result, similar to the image on the right. The advantage of running your tests with npx is the flexibility to easily customize your test runs without having to edit files.